About infantile respiratory distress syndrome

What is infantile respiratory distress syndrome?

Infant respiratory distress syndrome is a lung disorder that tends to affect premature infants. Major symptoms include difficulty in breathing and collapsed lungs, potentially requiring mechanical ventilation or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).



What are the symptoms for infantile respiratory distress syndrome?

Sleepy symptom was found in the infantile respiratory distress syndrome condition

Infant respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by diminished oxygen intake in the premature newborn. A clear membrane is found lining the alveolar (air cell) ducts in the lungs and is associated with reduced amounts of lung wetting agents or emulsifier (surfactant). The surfactant is a lipoprotein based on lecithin that stabilizes alveolar membranes. When this surfactant is missing, Breathing is difficult and may lead to collapse of a lung. The affected infant must be placed on some type of ventilation, either mechanical or physical, in order to continue breathing.



What are the causes for infantile respiratory distress syndrome?

Infant respiratory distress syndrome is caused by the absence of a natural lung wetting agent (surfactant) in the immature lungs of infants. Since surfactant normally develops late in prenatal life it usually is not present in the very premature infant of about 26-36 weeks of gestational age. This can result in improper functioning of the alveoli (air cells) of the lungs causing breathing difficulties and collapsed lungs.

Surfactant protein-B (SP-B) deficiency is a rare type of infant respiratory distress syndrome caused by an abnormal pulmonary surfactant B gene. This type of infant respiratory distress syndrome follows autosomal recessive inheritance.

Recessive genetic disorders occur when an individual inherits the same abnormal gene for the same trait from each parent. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but usually will not show symptoms. The risk for two carrier parents to both pass the defective gene and, therefore, have an affected child is 25% with each pregnancy. The risk to have a child who is a carrier like the parents is 50% with each pregnancy. The chance for a child to receive normal genes from both parents and be genetically normal for that particular trait is 25%. The risk is the same for males and females.



What are the treatments for infantile respiratory distress syndrome?

Treatment of infant respiratory distress syndrome consists of mechanical or physical breathing assistance such as positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). Other treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

Exosurf Neonatal (colfosceril palmitate) is a synthetic lung surfactant that was approved for use in August of 1990 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of infant respiratory distress syndrome. The treatment consists of a single dose given 30 minutes after birth to high-risk infants. Surfactants are surface-cleaning agents that are used to wash out (lavage) the lungs and its air passages (bronchopulmonary area). This synthetic form of lung surfactant is manufactured by Burroughs Wellcome.

Survanta (beractant) developed by Abbott Labs is another pediatric surfactant and is derived from bovine tissues. There is also great improvement in the infants treated with this product.

Surfactant TA and Human Surf have both been approved by the FDA for treatment of infant respiratory distress syndrome.

The FDA has also approved Dey Lab's lung surfactant, Curosurf Intratracheal Suspension (poractant alpha) for the treatment of infant respiratory distress syndrome.



What are the risk factors for infantile respiratory distress syndrome?

Infantile respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) is a condition that affects newborn babies. It's caused by immature lungs and can be life-threatening if not treated immediately.

Infants with IRDS have difficulty breathing and may develop bluish skin coloration, which can be seen especially around the mouth and lips. Babies with IRDS may also have trouble feeding, may vomit or cough up mucus, or may have difficulty maintaining body temperature.

The cause of IRDS is unclear but research suggests that it's either an underlying problem in the lungs or immune system response to an infection in the mother during pregnancy.

Here are the 4 risk factors of infantile respiratory distress syndrome:

1. Premature birth: A premature birth is when a baby is born earlier than 37 weeks of pregnancy. This can happen if there are problems with the placenta or with the baby's lungs.

2. Infection, such as a lung infection or pneumonia: These infections can happen in babies who have been born prematurely, but they can also happen to full-term babies with other conditions like CF (cystic fibrosis), asthma, and allergies.

3. Problems with the lungs, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which is a chronic lung disease that happens in many babies who were born too early and who were treated with oxygen therapy after birth.

4. Complications from prematurity, such as heart failure or respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).

Symptoms
Infants with IRDS will have blue lips or skin,They may have trouble taking in enough oxygen, which can make them tired, sleepy, and weak,Their skin will feel cold to the touch
Condition
Prematurity,Birth asphyxia,Rh incompatibility,Maternal myocardial infarction during pregnancy or delivery,Pneumonia
Drugs
Ventolin,Salbutamol,Fluticasone,Dexamethasone



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